文章摘要
张新华,薛睿瑛,王明,邓晴.堰塞坝溃口演化研究进展 [J].西南民族大学自然科学版,2020,46(1):85-91
堰塞坝溃口演化研究进展
Research progress on the breach-evolution of natural dams
投稿时间:2020-01-08  修订日期:2020-01-08
中文关键词: 堰塞坝  溃口  溃坝模型  模型试验
英文关键词: natural dam  breach  dam-break model  physical experiment
基金项目:国家重点研发项目课题(2018YFC1505004); 国家自然科学基金(No.51579162,51879174)
作者单位E-mail
张新华 四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室 xhzhang@scu.edu.cn 
薛睿瑛 四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室  
王明 四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室  
邓晴 四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室  
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中文摘要:
      近年来,随着全球气候变化与人类活动影响,极端天气现象与自然灾害频发。其中,由地震、暴雨、洪水等诱发的山体滑坡、崩塌或泥石流堵塞河道所形成的堰塞坝(湖)时有发生。堰塞坝因坝体材料构成复杂、结构松散,往往会在短时期内发生溃决,溃决洪水会对下游沿途两岸的工矿企业、城镇、农田、道路、建筑物等造成严重威胁与破坏。目前,溃坝洪水研究的重点和难点仍然是溃口的形成与演化问题,虽然通过大量研究已经取得了不少研究成果,但是,溃口演变机理仍然是未被解决的世界性难题。为此,本文将着重从溃坝原型观测、物理模型试验、溃口经验公式、溃口数值模拟等方面系统梳理了国内外在溃口演化机理研究上取得的进展,并针对研究中存在的不足提出了今后的研究方向和重点,以便为后续的堰塞坝溃口演化研究提供一定的参考或借鉴。
英文摘要:
      In recent years, with the impact of global climate change and human activities, extreme weather and natural disasters occur frequently. Among them, landslides, collapses or debris flows caused by earthquakes, rainstorms, floods and so on often block up rivers by the formed natural dams. Because of the complex material composition and loose structure of the natural dam, the dam often breaks in a short period of time after its formation. The flood due to the dam break can cause a serious threat and damage to the industrial or other enterprises, towns, farmland, roads and buildings along the banks of the river downstream. Currently, the most important and difficult problems in the studies on the flooding due to the natural dam-breaks are still on the formation and evolution of the dam breaches. Although a lot of research results have been achieved, the evolution mechanism of dam break is still an unsolved problem world-widely. Therefore, this paper will focus on the research progress of the evolution mechanism of dam break from the aspects of prototype observation, physical experiment, empirical formula study, numerical simulation study and so on. In addition, the future research direction and focus in view of the shortcomings in the research are put forward, so as to provide some reference for the subsequent research on the evolution of dam breaks.
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